Exposure to smoke from polluting, open fires or inefficient fuels – the primary means of cooking and heating for nearly three billion people in developing countries – causes about 4 million premature deaths, including 21,650 deaths in Kenya, every year. 

Cooking smoke contributes to a range of chronic illnesses and acute health impacts such as early childhood pneumonia, emphysema, lung cancer, bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, and low birth weight. Women and young children are the most affected, with close to 5,000 children in Kenya dying every year as a result of acute lower respiratory infections caused by the smoke from the use of solid fuels. 

Eighty percent of Kenyan households rely primarily on solid fuels for their cooking needs, with 8.1 million households using wood and 1.3 million households using charcoal. Only 3.7 million households use LPG as their primary fuel, while only 3% of households own electric cooking appliances. Reliance on biomass for cooking and heating leads to environmental degradation from increased pressure on local natural resources and forces women and children to spend many hours each week collecting wood. Inefficient cooking also contributes to climate change through emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane and aerosols such as black carbon.


Clean Cooking Can Help

The use of cleaner, more modern stoves and fuels can dramatically reduce exposure to harmful smoke; provide myriad economic opportunities for Kenyans; and help reduce forest degradation and slow climate change. More modern stoves and cleaner fuels also reduce the time that people—usually women and girls—need to spend collecting fuel, freeing up time for income-generating activities or schoolwork.



Kenya has seen steady advancement in transforming the cookstoves and fuels sector, which has resulted in increased investment. Here are some of the accomplishments and activities so far:

  • The Government of Kenya has recognized clean cooking as a nexus issue and has included it in government policies and development plans such as the National Climate Change Action Plan (2018-2022).
  • Thanks to investments and innovation like PAYGO and smart gas meters for LPG, clean cooking solutions are becoming more affordable.
  • Donors and investors are increasingly interested in growing Kenya’s clean cooking market, resulting in the emergence of local industrial cookstoves manufacturing, local assembly, and new market players.
  • Standards have been developed for biomass cookstoves and for meters dispensing LPG from cylinders. In addition, the ISO test sequence standard has been adopted for stove emissions, performance, safety and durability.
  • The Alliance is working closely with the Clean Cooking Association of Kenya (CCAK) to enhance standards and labeling for clean cooking biomass technologies. The program will provide consumers with easy-to-understand information on stove and fuel performance to help them make informed purchasing decisions.
  • A national clean cooking sector study was released in November 2019 to inform policies and implementation plans.

It should also be noted that under the Finance Act 2020, the Government of Kenya reinstated a standard rate of 14% VAT on various clean cooking products, including stoves, biogas and LPG. LPG was granted a one-year extension of zero-rating and so the effective date of the change in its VAT status is July 2021. This is a reversal from the Government of Kenya’s decision in 2016 to exempt clean cooking stoves and fuels from VAT and will obviously have a significant impact on the industry in that it will increase prices for consumers. The Alliance will continue to work with CCAK and other stakeholders to advocate for policy solutions that are conducive to market growth


Country Statistics
Number of people who primarily use fuels such as wood, charcoal, coal, and kerosene for cooking - 10.5 million (2019)
Number of deaths per year attributable to household air pollution - 21,560
Percentage of woodfuel harvest that is unsustainable - 63% (Bailis et al., 2015)
12-3: Enhancing Capacity of Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers
Support to the Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI)- Stove Testing Centre
Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute
2012 - Kenya
12-5: Gender
Understanding Impacts of Women’s Engagement in the Improved Cookstove Value Chain in Kenya
Johns Hopkins University
2012 - Kenya
12-7: Spark Fund
Support to Burn Manufacturing to Scale Up ICS Production in East Africa
BURN Manufacturing Co.
2012 - Kenya
Scaling Up Distribution of Efficient Cookstoves in Kenya
Klarisse Kenya Limited dba EzyLife Kenya
2012 - Kenya
Improving the Performance and Quality of Locally Manufactured Improved Cookstoves
GVEP International
2012 - Kenya
13-4: Spark Fund: Round II
Spark Fund, Round II: SimGas BV - East Africa Region
SimGas BV
2014 - Kenya, Tanzania
13-6 Women’s Empowerment Fund
WEF Grant: The Paradigm Project
The Paradigm Project
2014 - Kenya
14-1: Enhancing Capacity of Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers
2015 Support to the Kenya Indistrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI) - Stove Testing Centre
Kenya Indistrial Research and Development Institute
2015 - Kenya
14-3: Pilot Innovation Fund III
PIF Round 3: EcoZoom
2015 - Kenya
15-5: Catalytic Small Grants East Africa
Catalytic Small Grant- SCODE
SCODE Limited
2015 - Kenya
Catalytic Small Grant- Eco Group Limited
Eco-Group Limited
2015 - Kenya
Catalytic Small Grant- Wisdom
Wisdoms Innovations
2015 - Kenya
Catalytic Small Grant- Kencoco
Kencoco Limited
2015 - Kenya
16-2: BCC Fund
Clean Cooking BCC Fund - PS Kenya
Population Services Kenya
2016 - Kenya
Clean Cooking BCC Fund - Mediae Company Ltd
The Mediae Company Ltd
2016 - Kenya
16-3: EMF Kenya
Kenya EMF - Livelyhoods
2016 - Kenya
Kenya EMF - Ecozoom
EcoZoom East Africa Ltd
2016 - Kenya
Kenya EMF - Consumer's Choice
Consumer's Choice Limited
2016 - Kenya
16-4: WEF Round 3
Women's Empowerment Fund: Bidhaa Sasa
Bidhaa Sasa Limited
2016 - Kenya
Women's Empowerment Fund: BURN Manufacturing Co.
Burn Manufacturing Co.
2016 - Kenya
17-2: WEF Round 4
Women's Empowerment Fund: LivelyHoods
2017 - Kenya
Award and Event Sponsorship
2014 Sankalp Awards
Intellectual Capital Advisory Services
2014 - India, Kenya
Carbon Finance, Impact Investing and Market Development Grants
Capacity Building Facility- Burn Manufacturing
Acumen Fund, Inc.
2015 - Kenya
Gender and Humanitarian Grants
Social Impact Assessment of Cookstove Pilot Project in Kenya
International Center for Research on Women
2016 - Kenya
Clean Cooking Awareness Pilot for Kenyan Youth
I Choose Life - Africa
2017 - Kenya
National Alliances
Support for the Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya
Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya
2013 - Kenya
2015 Support to the Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya
Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya
2015 - Kenya
2016 Support to the Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya
Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya
2016 - Kenya